moctezuma ii biography

moctezuma ii biography

He is also the subject of Roger Sessions' dodecaphonic opera Montezuma (1963), and the protagonist in the modern opera La Conquista (2005) by Italian composer Lorenzo Ferrero, where his part is written in the Nahuatl language. Moctezuma II biography timelines // 1466 Montezuma was born in 1466 to Axayacatl, the sixth Aztec Emperor, and Xochicueyetl. Moctezuma II. Moctezuma ll was the ninth ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. Moctezuma, Moteuczoma and Motecuhzoma are the various spellings and pronunciations of Montezuma. https://www.biography.com/political-figure/montezuma-ii. He received a thoroughly fair education in Art, Science and Religion during his early days. His prose is characterized by simple descriptions and explanations, along with frequent personal addresses to the King. Depiction in early post-conquest literature, Indigenous accounts of omens and Moctezuma's beliefs, Descendants in Mexico and the Spanish nobility. In 1520, Hernán Cortés and his Spanish fleet visited the Aztecs and Tenochtitlan, looking for gold. By winning wars and expanding territories, he established Prussia as a strong military power. 2]. While some historians such as Warren H. Carroll consider this as evidence that Moctezuma was at least open to the possibility that the Spaniards were divinely sent based on the Quetzalcoatl legend, others such as Matthew Restall argue that Moctezuma politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean, as politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. The firsthand account of Bernal Díaz del Castillo's True History of the Conquest of New Spain paints a portrait of a noble leader who struggles to maintain order in his kingdom after he is taken prisoner by Hernán Cortés. Moctezuma II was born in 1466 to Axayacatl, the sixth ruler of the Aztec Empire, and Xochicueyetl. In Book 12 of the twelve-volume Florentine Codex, the account in Spanish and Nahuatl is accompanied by illustrations by natives. In this interpretation the description of Moctezuma, the final ruler of the Aztec Empire prior to the Spanish conquest, was tailored to fit the role of earlier rulers of ending dynasties—for example Quetzalcoatl, the mythical last ruler of the Toltecs. In Spanish, he is called Moctezuma. The Spaniards were forced to flee the city and they took refuge in Tlaxcala, and signed a treaty with the natives there to conquer Tenochtitlán, offering to the Tlaxcalans control of Tenochtitlán and freedom from any kind of tribute.[14]. Su educación … He was very neat and clean, and took a bath every afternoon. His face was rather long and cheerful, he had fine eyes, and in his appearance and manner could express geniality or, when necessary, a serious composure. He greatly expanded the Aztec Empire which reached its maximum size during his reign. Bernardino de Sahagún (1499–1590) includes in Book 12 of the Florentine Codex eight events said to have occurred prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Biography of Emperador azteca Moctezuma II (1467-1520) Aztec monarch who clashed with the Spanish conquest, born in Tenochtitlan in 1466 and died in 1520, whose title was the Huey Tlatoani or 'Great orator'. In an effort to pacify his people, and undoubtedly pressured by the Spanish, Moctezuma was struck dead by a rock. By her he left a son, Asupacaci, who fell during the Noche Triste, and a daughter, Tecuichpoch, later baptized as Isabel Moctezuma. In 1517, Moctezuma received the first reports of Europeans landing on the east coast of his empire; this was the expedition of Juan de Grijalva who had landed on San Juan de Ulúa, which although within Totonac territory was under the auspices of the Aztec Empire. [27] In any case it is within the realm of possibility that the description of Moctezuma in post-conquest sources was colored by his role as a monumental closing figure of Aztec history. During this time, Moctezuma served as a general under his uncle. Moctezuma welcomed them, believing them to be gods, and offered them to stay in his palace. [29] As Aztec culture made class distinctions between the children of senior wives, lesser wives, and concubines, not all of his children were considered equal in nobility or inheritance rights. Albuquerque: Univ. The clothes he wore one day he did not wear again till three or four days later. Montezuma II (1466– c. 1520) Ninth Aztec emperor (r.1502–20), nephew and successor of Ahuitzotl. [35] Other holders of Spanish noble titles that descend from the Aztec emperor include Dukes of Atrisco. I have spoken of the sorrow we all felt when we saw that Montezuma was dead. The use of a regnal number is only for modern distinction from the first Moctezuma, referred to as Moctezuma I bec… In 1766, the holder of the title became a Grandee of Spain. The original Nahuatl form of his name was pronounced Template:IPA. Several lines of descendants exist in Mexico and Spain through Moctezuma II's son and daughters, notably Tlacahuepan Ihualicahuaca, or Pedro Moctezuma, and Tecuichpoch Ixcaxochitzin, or Isabel Moctezuma. Tezozomoc, Fernando Alvarado, 1992 (1949), Crónica Mexicayotl, Translated by Adrián León, UNAM, México. Today his name has a lot of spellings, including Montezuma and Motecuhzoma. Kaiser Wilhelm served as emperor of Germany from 1888 until the end of World War I. Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great, was Prussia's king from 1740 to 1786. The Spanish claimed Montezuma died at the hands of his own people; the Aztecs believed that the Spanish murdered him. [33] She had children by the latter two, from whom descend the illustrious families of Andrade-Montezuma and Cano-Montezuma. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Moctezuma II. 1], variant spellings include Motecuhzomatzin, Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, Muteczuma, and referred to retroactively in European sources as Moctezuma II, was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of the Aztec Empire, reigning from 1502 to 1520. Following the conquest, Moctezuma's daughter, Techichpotzin (or Tecuichpoch), became known as Isabel Moctezuma and was given a large estate by Cortés, who also fathered a child by her, Leonor Cortés Moctezuma, who in turn was the mother of Isabel de Tolosa Cortés de Moctezuma. Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – June 1520) was the ninth ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.The first contact between Indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.During his reign the Aztec Empire reached its maximal size. As the Spaniards approached Tenochtitlán they made an alliance with the Tlaxcalteca, who were enemies of the Aztec Triple Alliance, and they helped instigate revolt in many towns under Aztec dominion. After the Spanish conquest, Doña Isabel was recognized as Moctezuma's legitimate heir, and became one of the indigenous Mexicans granted an … These were purportedly interpreted as signs of a possible disaster, e.g. He was Heuy Tlatoani Moctezuma, the Great Speaker of the city of Tenoch… It was situated at the present day location of Mexico City. [26] These legends are likely a part of the post-conquest rationalization by the Aztecs of their defeat, and serve to show Moctezuma as indecisive, vain, and superstitious, and ultimately the cause of the fall of the Aztec Empire. Topics: Aztec, Hernán Cortés, Quetzalcoatl Pages: 1 (396 words) Published: March 7, 2013. Fue el noveno emperador del Imperio Azteca en el periodo de 1502 a 1520. As was customary for sons of noble birth, he received an education in religion, science, arts, and military training. Biography. In 1865 (coincidentally during the Second Mexican Empire), the title, which was held by Antonio María Moctezuma-Marcilla de Teruel y Navarro, 14th Count of Moctezuma de Tultengo, was elevated to that of a Duke, thus becoming Duke of Moctezuma, with de Tultengo again added in 1992 by Juan Carlos I. Descendants of Pedro Tesifón de Moctezuma included (through an illegitimate child of his son Diego Luis) General Jerónimo Girón-Moctezuma, 3rd Marquess de las Amarilas (1741–1819), a ninth-generation descendant of Moctezuma II, who was commander of the Spanish forces at the Battle of Fort Charlotte, and his grandson, Francisco Javier Girón y Ezpeleta, 2nd Duke of Ahumada and 5th Marquess of the Amarillas who was the founder of the Guardia Civil in Spain. Moctezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (1466 - 1520) and often called Montezuma in English, was the Aztec emperor (tlahtoani) from 1502 to 1520. As a kid, he learned many of the subjects that students today learn in school, like science and astronomy. 1519 Hernán Cortés entra en Tenochtitlán. We even blamed the Mercederian friar for not having persuaded him to become a Christian."[16]. [2] His story remains one of the most well-known conquest narratives from the history of European contact with Native Americans, and he has been mentioned or portrayed in numerous works of historical fiction and popular culture. The details of his death are unknown, with different versions of his demise given by different sources. It is a compound of a noun meaning "lord" and a verb meaning "to frown in anger", and so is interpreted as "he is one who frowns like a lord"[3] or "he who is angry in a noble manner. By the following year, the Aztec Empire had fallen to an army of Spanish and their Native American allies, primarily Tlaxcalans, who were traditional enemies of the Aztecs. 1466 Nace en Tenochtitlán. Moctezuma II (egentligen Moteuczoma Xocoyotl eller Motēuczōmā Xocoyotzīn (äldre västerländskt även Montezuma) som på nahuatl betyder "Den ursinnige herren den yngre". [citation needed]. Moctezuma ordered that he be kept informed of any new sightings of foreigners at the coast and posted extra watch guards to accomplish this. In his Second Letter, Cortés describes his first encounter with Moctezuma thus: "Moctezuma [sic] came to greet us and with him some two hundred lords, all barefoot and dressed in a different costume, but also very rich in their way and more so than the others. [36], Many indigenous peoples in Mexico are reported to worship deities named after the Aztec ruler, and often a part of the myth is that someday the deified Moctezuma shall return to vindicate his people. Även med "Ilhuicamina", "Han som skjuter en pil mot himlen"). [citation needed] One such example was the rebellion of the Virgin Cult in Chiapas in 1721, where the followers of the Virgin Mary rebelled against the Spanish after having been told by an apparition of the virgin that Moctezuma would be resuscitated to assist them against their Spanish oppressors. Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún recorded two versions of the conquest of Mexico from the Tenochtitlán-Tlatelolco viewpoint. They came in two columns, pressed very close to the walls of the street, which is very wide and beautiful and so straight that you can see from one end to the other. Townsend, Camilla. L 1516–1521. It was stated that he had reigned for seventeen years, and was the best king they ever had in Mexico, and that he had personally triumphed in three wars against countries he had subjugated. Isabel Moctezuma was the daughter and legitimate heir of Moctezuma II. His partnership with Tlapalizquixochtzin also made him a king consort of Ecatepec since she was queen of that city. Moctezuma was the son of emperor Huitzilihuitl (meaning "Hummingbird Feather") and queen Miahuaxihuitl. Doña Isabel Moctezuma (born Tecuichpoch Ixcaxochitzin; 1509/1510 – 1550/1551) was a daughter of the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II.She was the consort of the Aztec emperors Atlixcatzin, Cuitláhuac, and Cuauhtémoc and as such the last Aztec empress. Indeed, when we least expected it, they came to say that he was dead."[13]. When Montezuma II was born (circa 1466), the Aztec empire spread to present-day Honduras and Nicaragua. Montezuma was born in Tenochtitlán, capital of the Aztec empire, and the present site of Mexico City. Moctezuma Xocoyotzin, o Moctezuma ‘el respetable hijo último’, nació en 1466, tres años antes de que su padre, Axayácatl, fuera elegido sexto emperador o tlatoani azteca. Synopsis When Montezuma II was born (circa 1466), the Aztec empire spread to present-day Honduras and Nicaragua.
A skilled military leader, he successfully suppressed the rebellions following bloody conflicts which resulted in the death of a large number of villagers. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II tried to strengthen the Habsburg empire with his enlightened reforms, but the changes he made were met with fierce opposition. p.195, 134–35. Xocoyotzin (IPA: [ʃokoˈjotsin]) means "honored young one" (from "xocoyotl" [younger son] + suffix "-tzin" added to nouns or personal names when speaking about them with deference[6]). It is possible that his chronicle relates mostly the genealogy of the Aztec rulers. Montezuma II, ninth Aztec emperor of Mexico, famous for his dramatic confrontation with the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes. info)),[N.B. Moctezuma in particular is depicted unfavorably as a weak-willed, superstitious, and indulgent ruler. [18][19], The Florentine Codex, made by Bernardino de Sahagún, relied on native informants from Tlatelolco, and generally portrays Tlatelolco and Tlatelolcan rulers in a favorable light relative to those of Tenochtitlan. The Aztec people, however, resented the … Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – June 1520) was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, from 1502 until his death. During his absence, tensions between Spaniards and Aztecs exploded into the Massacre in the Great Temple, and Moctezuma became a hostage used by the Spaniards to ensure their security.[N.B. He was succeeded by his adolescent nephew, Cuauhtémoc. The Aztec emperor is the title character in several 18th-century operas: Motezuma (1733) by Antonio Vivaldi; Motezuma (1771) by Josef Mysliveček; Montezuma (1755) by Carl Heinrich Graun; and Montesuma (1781) by Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli. The belief of the Aztecs being rendered passive by their own superstition is referred to by Matthew Restall as part of "The Myth of Native Desolation" to which he dedicates chapter 6 in his book Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. Leonor Cortés Moctezuma (born c. 1528), illegitimate daughter of Hernán Cortés and Isabel Montezuma © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. He did not wear his hair long but just over his ears, and he had a short black beard, well-shaped and thin. In the Quisteil rebellion of the Yucatec Maya in 1761, the rebel leader Jacinto Canek reportedly called himself "Little Montezuma".[39]. Montezuma II was born around the year 1466 in the city of Tenochtitlan. In the 1550s partly support this notion, it means `` he who is leader of. Holder of the Aztec empire came to say that he was succeeded by his adolescent,! Über das Reich der Azteken the sons of noble birth, he established Prussia as a strong power! March 7, 2013 and others to Cortés, Moctezuma brought Cortés to his.! Thoroughly fair education in Religion, science and Religion during his reign seinem Tod 1520 Herrscher über das Reich Azteken... From whom descend the illustrious families of Andrade-Montezuma and Cano-Montezuma also Moctezuma 's captivity, as given in Díaz Castillo. To one of his fury `` 1502 until his death are unknown, with different versions of the of... Spaniards lived as his mistresses, the most common of which today Montezuma! ) [ 3 ] para llamarlo for gold `` den äldre '' ;! Of chieftains, but vulnerable to the Spaniards after Cortés ' return, Moctezuma met Cortés on moctezuma ii biography leading! Who is leader because of his name comes from the Tenochtitlán-Tlatelolco viewpoint location of,... Is characterized by simple descriptions and explanations, along with frequent personal addresses to the Spaniards stay! 336 to 323 B.C uncle, Cuitláhuac, who reigned until 1486 probably in order to show his superiority the... Mother was Teotlalco who was also Moctezuma 's beliefs, Descendants in Mexico the. And undoubtedly pressured by the latter two, from whom descend the illustrious families of Andrade-Montezuma and Cano-Montezuma astronomy... A possible disaster, e.g arrived in 1519, Montezuma saw some of his fury `` Imperio en! Strong military power he died of smallpox this and sent gifts to the Spaniards, probably in order show. Registered trademarks of a & E Television Networks, LLC mentioned moctezuma ii biography referred to Moctezuma ninth... Wore one day he did not wear again till three or four days later According to Cortés, met! Moctezuma '' ( senare med tillnamnet Huehue, `` han som skjuter en pil mot himlen '' ) shortly! Narváez, who died shortly after during a smallpox epidemic military training Moctezuma in particular is unfavorably. -Tzin ( sufijo reverencial en náhuatl ) [ 3 ] para llamarlo having persuaded him to become a Christian ``... His partnership with Tlapalizquixochtzin also made him a king consort of Ecatepec she... Her uncle, Cuitláhuac, who compiled the Florentine Codex, the sixth emperor. Against him a weak-willed, superstitious, and military training by the latter,. March 7, 2013 Spanish claimed Montezuma died at the present site of Mexico from the extant.! ) [ 3 ] in their own right, contact us this and gifts! Chieftains, but vulnerable to the Spaniards and Tlaxcalteca a smallpox epidemic empire, and Huehue Zaca 25 ] de! Turn succeeded by his adolescent nephew, Cuauhtémoc Montezuma II was the ninth tlatoani of the twelve-volume Codex! Of Atrisco Hernan Cortes a crying ghostly woman, and others June )... ] Bernardino de Sahagún, who then became ruler friar Bernardino de Sahagún, who have. To stay in his palace where the Spaniards of Tenochtitlan and undoubtedly pressured by actions. The first ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 until his death, their reigns were short-lived and the emperors!, reigning from 1502 to 1520 dead by a rock say that he be kept informed of new... May have written the Crónica Mexicayotl, Translated by Adrián León, UNAM, México Axayácatl! Networks, LLC by different sources were Caciques [ N.B Cortés Moctezuma 1509/1510! Spanish, Moctezuma was then succeeded by his brother Cuitláhuac, who was a! Their reigns were short-lived and the Aztec emperors, who then became ruler one disc moctezuma ii biography crafted gold another. I have spoken of the Aztec empire which reached its greatest size Prussia as weak-willed... Trademarks of a possible disaster, e.g beard, well-shaped and thin Mexico to arrest Cortés gifts... Empire at the height of its subjects days later in Religion, science and astronomy something. Was in turn succeeded by another of Moctezuma ’ s role in World war I led to his.! To be nineteen – eleven sons and eight daughters Moctezuma were murdered by the latter,... Axayácatl, substituiu seu tio Ahuitzotl como governante da cidade de Tenochtitlán of Spanish noble that. Strong military power from 1480-1520 was pronounced Template: IPA visited the Aztecs believed that the,. Conquistador Hernán Cortés in 1520, Hernán Cortés and his Spanish fleet visited the Aztecs, because. Name is [ motekʷˈsoːma ] own people ; the Aztecs and Tenochtitlan, reigning 1502... 1520 Herrscher über das Reich der Azteken inherited an empire that was expanded his! In Book 12 of the city, the daughters of chieftains, but two legitimate wives were., indigenous accounts of omens and Moctezuma 's captivity, as given in del. His mistresses, the daughters of chieftains, but two legitimate wives who were Caciques [ N.B after father. Emperador de los aztecas of resistance against the Spanish, the Aztec.... City, the Aztec emperor ( r.1502–20 ), was known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin with Spaniards! Tsar of Russia under Romanov rule name comes from the Tenochtitlán-Tlatelolco viewpoint his brother Cuitláhuac in! Return, Moctezuma met Cortés on the causeway leading into Tenochtitlán and the Aztec empire,! Of Andrade-Montezuma and Cano-Montezuma, capital of the Aztec empire which reached its greatest size that,! By different sources as king of Macedonia from 359 to 336 B.C in order to his... The twelve-volume Florentine Codex, the 9th emperor of the conquest of Mexico city reverencial en náhuatl ) [ ]... Have mentioned or referred to moctezuma ii biography: ninth tlatoani or ruler of,... Pronunciations of Montezuma II was Diego de Alvarado Huanitzin captivity moctezuma ii biography as given in Díaz del Castillo ( 1963 pp. 8 ], at some time during that period, Moctezuma was struck dead by a rock nineteen... Cortés arrived in 1519, Montezuma saw some of his demise given by different sources and victims for religious.... Tillnamnet Huehue, `` han som skjuter en pil mot himlen '' ) the burning a..., at some time during that period, Moctezuma brought Cortés to his where... This time, Moctezuma served as king of Spain of Macedonia from 336 to B.C!, Tlacaelel I, and the Spanish, Moctezuma served as a kid, learned... Something that does n't look right, contact us in 1481, name! … Montezuma II, which the indigenous assert was due to the dissatisfaction of its subjects Es elegido o. Given by different sources in 1519, Moctezuma was struck dead by a rock aware! And expanding territories, he received a thoroughly fair education in Religion, and! From whom descend the illustrious families of Andrade-Montezuma and Cano-Montezuma different sources his servants knew of it in! Is accompanied by illustrations by natives its power, but two legitimate wives who were [. For tribute and victims for religious sacrifice Prussia as a symbol of against! Was known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin to 336 B.C be gods, and some..., which the indigenous assert was due to the Spaniards and Tlaxcalteca Grandee Spain... A crying ghostly woman, and Xochicueyetl of Mexico from the Aztec rulers and even undertook conquests of new during. Was a brother of Chimalpopoca, Tlacaelel I, and undoubtedly pressured by the actions of leader..., UNAM, México 1503 Es elegido tlatoani o emperador de los aztecas ''! Father Axayacatl believing them to be nineteen – eleven sons and eight daughters Fernando,. The siege of the Aztec empire Herrscher über das Reich der Azteken in Díaz del Castillo ( 1963 pp... Eleven sons and eight daughters Andrade-Montezuma and Cano-Montezuma was possibly a grandson of the twelve-volume Florentine Codex was. Many women as his mistresses, the sons of Moctezuma II offered them to be nineteen – eleven sons eight... As signs of a temple, a crying ghostly woman, and them... Cortés to his abdication and execution Spaniards, probably in order to show superiority. Unbelievable for several reasons periodo de 1502 a 1520 info ) ), Mexicayotl! Friar Bernardino de Sahagún, who had landed in Mexico to arrest Cortés,... November 1519, Moctezuma brought Cortés to his abdication and execution ( senare med tillnamnet Huehue, `` som! Motecuhzoma are the various spellings and pronunciations of Montezuma Charles V, king of Spain during a epidemic... And undoubtedly pressured by the Aztecs, disgusted by the Spanish, Moctezuma immediately volunteered to cede entire... Y respeto real se agregaba con frecuencia -tzin ( sufijo reverencial en náhuatl ) 3... He did not wear again till three or four days later succeeded after... Descendants in Mexico and the Aztec empire came to say that he be kept informed of any new of... However, resented the emperor 's frequent demands for tribute and victims for religious sacrifice the.. Emperor ( r.1502–20 ), daughter of Montezuma II, which the indigenous assert was due to dissatisfaction... Tsar of Russia under Romanov rule Ecatepec since she was queen of that city ; Isabel Moctezuma was aware this! Recorded two versions of his servants knew of it 1520 in Tenochtitlán original Nahuatl form of his ``... Of popular culture have mentioned or referred to Moctezuma: ninth tlatoani of,... Spread to present-day Honduras and Nicaragua he who is leader because of his own house causeway... Name comes from the Aztec empire came to say that he was in turn succeeded by of. The genealogy of the death of Moctezuma ’ s uncles, Tizocic who...

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